With a coastline of 37,653km, Russia has never been able to adequately police or control its maritime borders, but to compensate for any shortfall in its naval capabilities it has modernised and developed its coastal defences. We take a look at Russia’s coastal defence missile systems and how they fit into the country’s maritime strategy.

The effectiveness of anti-tank weapons used by Ukraine against Russian tanks revives old questions and generates new ones about the future of armoured fighting vehicles. We explore whether tanks still have a place on the modern battlefield, and why the future of armoured fighting vehicles might be modular.

Also in this issue, we review Germany’s historic defence budget increase and ask how the Bundeswehr will benefit in terms of new equipment and modernisation programmes. We also take a look at the importance of rare earth elements in military equipment manufacturing, and explore the implications of China’s dominance of resources and the need to secure supply chains.

Plus, we speak to Improbable about simulation and modelling for defence operations, and hear from QinetiQ about how the defence sector can achieve net zero by 2050.

Susanne Hauner, editor